Wk 14: 4/21 – 4/28

Crazy to think it’s the last 2 weeks before we have to present our thesis! Time is even wonkier during quarantine.

Here are the goals for this week are: a.) finish the d3.js map of the e-waste drop off sites, b.) finish up content for the discarding site, c.) make a 3d or cardboard mockup of 2nd interaction, d.) document + work on presentation

There’s just so much more I had hoped to add for this project. I know I won’t be able to finish everything I was aiming for in time. I also don’t have it in me to pull all nighters/crazy work schedules during this pandemic that has taught me it’s not worth planning/stressing because life will do what it wants anyways….and there are too many things beyond our control. The best I can do is just treat these thesis deadlines as check-in points to a project with a longer timeline.

a.) d3.js map of e-waste drop off sites

First, I downloaded the CSV file of all the NY e-waste drop off sites from NYC Open Data. I cleaned up the data in google sheets and downloaded the CSV file again. Then I found online NY json map files and programmed the map so that each of the different drop off sites is a different color.

Some of the code was based on the Data + Publics example code, which can be seen: here.

Got the d3js map to work and it’s now integrated in the rest of the website.

b.) finish up content for the discarding site

Not all the content is included in there and there are so many processes steps I was hoping to add. I managed to make minor tweaks at least. The plus button toggles the content on and off now.

c.) make cardboard prototype for the 2nd kiosk

I’ve been putting this off for the longest time because I’ve just been unmotivated to do a cardboard version of this kiosk that was intended to be made out of wood+pegboard. But it needed to be done in some form, either with Rhino or with cardboard.

d.) Documentation

Documented, but I didn’t document me documenting…that would be too much I feel lol. There is more to do, but it was good to start. I always underestimate how long it takes to prep and practice a presentation.

Keeping it brief this week on the blog…just because there are so many loose ends to tie up.

Reference for Arduino to Raspberry Pi Communication:

Reference for d3js maps:

Wk 13: 4/14-4/21

This was another week focused on coding which turned out to be a delightful break from worrying about the unpredictable, economically uncertain future! For some reason, coding/designing is not an exhausting activity to do….but other things are? Why is this? Is this because coding/designing was already a screen-based activity? Anyways, the goal for this week was to get a decent website up for the disposal supply chain content. Second goal was to continue coding a website for the project itself.

Made progress on the: a.) disposal supply chain website, b.) flush out project website

a.) Disposal supply chain website

Kept designing the pages. The design was based on my original UX sketches. The content had already been written since February, which now feels like lifetimes ago.

Played around with svgs based on the udemy tutorial I’ve been watching.

a.) Codepen example of a svg animation test: here
b.) Another codepen example based on the tutorials (this one has more animation properties): here

b.) Website for project itself.

First did a rough design of the website. I decided to just make it a long scrolling website so people don’t have to click in and out too much. I felt much better after making this website just because I have a couple different pieces to this thesis. It really helps to house it somewhere in an organized way.


Reference for are.na api plugin – for bibliography:

Reference for scss:

Reference for family tree using d3js:

References (general):

Wk 12: 4/7-4/14

Updates this week: a.) Spray painted the sides! , b.) animate the exploded laptop intro animation for the cooling system, c.) design and code the project documentation site, d.) start on discarding website

a.) Spray painted the sides!

Wow, spray painting indoors is quite a lengthy process that requires a lot of moving furniture around, setting up, and cleaning up. Thank goodness this is water based spray paint so the smell wasn’t too awful or toxic. Spray painting the sides does add a very nice touch to the kiosk though!

b.) animate the exploded laptop intro animation for the cooling system

Some people at the Q+D Show also mentioned that it would be helpful to have a diagram of where the cooling system belongs in the laptop. So I animated the cooling system coming out of the laptop. Also up on the website which can be seen: here

c.) design and code the project documentation site

Coded and designed a very basic website to help communicate what this project is all about. This was actually so soothing and helpful to do; it was a great way for me to understand everything I’ve done for thesis and what’s left to do. There are still some missing documentation videos and images but the basic format is there.

Put it on my server and can be viewed: here

d.) start on discarding website

I revisited the design I had done for this back in February and updated it to better match the current design. I started coding it but ran into issues with trying to get the screen to move around based on the clicks. Nonetheless, I got the structure of the site going and booked Code Lab hours with Vince for help. Also put on my server: here

Code references for web animations using lottie:

Code references for zooming in on click:

Code references for flow charts:

Code references for svg

Thank you!!!

Biggest thank you to Vince Ming Pu Shao for helping me better understand how to pan across the screen when clicking on an svg. Amazing! He also provided the most helpful example code example regarding this: here

Wk 11: 4/1-4/7

Overall goal: need to get better at focusing when working at home.

Some updates: a.) make aluminum animation, b.) assemble component box’s graphics, c.) exploded view animation, d.) assemble RFID reader to kiosk, e.) integrate animation to website, f.) Q+D (Quick and Dirty) show, g.) code tweaks after Q+D show

a.) make aluminum animation

I followed the same steps as I did for the copper animation. This time it went by faster. First, I researched and wrote a script. Then I storyboarded my animation based on the script. Next, I illustrated the storyboard in Illustrator. I voice recorded myself narrating the script. I put it all together and added animated it in After Effects.

Thanks to Sarah’s helpful suggestion, I tried to add some more pauses and humor.

b.) assemble component box’s graphics

In order for the RFID tag to be read when the box is put into the scanning slot, I needed to make some graphics that indicated which side is in. The vinyl graphics came. Unfortunately, I couldn’t find an environmentally friendly, online vinyl printing company that also delivered. So I would say this part is not a shining moment/ something I am proud of.

c.) exploded view animation

Many people have suggested that I have an intro animation that shows where each component lives inside the laptop. Since a lot of these components look foreign to people, it is important to make it clear that it belongs in a laptop.

d.) assemble RFID reader to kiosk

So far, I have been treating the RFID reader and tag separately from the kiosk. But I finally integrated the two. What that entails is putting the RFID reader into the scanner slot and having the Arduino attached and placed in a safe spot inside the kiosk.

e.) integrate animation to website

I added the animation into the website and coded a custom progress bar and playhead for it. Finally finished coding the “Finished” page too.

f.) Q+D (Quick and Dirty) show

For the Q+D Show, I made a small presentation (based on the midterm presentations) for helping me explain to testers. Since I couldn’t have people try out the full kiosk interactive, I shared with them the website that appears when the Cooling System component is scanned. Overall, it was extremely helpful to user test! The feedback I received was so helpful and I’m beyond grateful for everyone’s smart advice.

Some key points were: a.) better explain what is being scanned and how it is being scanned, b.) include a photographic representation of the object for the web vs, c.) small UI tweaks to make it easier to navigate through the website, d.) make a web version of the interaction so that this website can be used in classrooms and for anyone online.

More feedback notes: here

Wk 10: 3/24-3/31

Latest game plan: Keep going as though I will be showing it at Sims by the end of summer or whenever the Coronavirus storm blows over. Get the website part ready for user testing. Build some mockup form of the 2nd kiosk with the ideal interaction. If there is a little time, build an index/ bibliography/ resource website for the diagrams made and references used.

Some updates: a.) Animation for how copper is made, b.) Diagram the full elements in a chrome book, c.) Fabricate the box for the component and RFID reader, d.) Integrate physical computing elements with the fabricated kiosk, e.) Print graphics for kiosk

a.) Animation for how copper is made: wow, this took quite a while to put together. The longest part was researching and figuring out what parts of the process I should include. There are really so many intricate steps to how copper is mined and manufactured. Not only steps, but also many different types. The animation I ended up making is only one way to mine + manufacture copper.

First was researching and writing a script.

Next was storyboarding the script.

Then I drew the animation scenes in Illustrator.

I also recorded myself narrating the script, then I used After Effects to animate the storyboard.

Latest video render: https://youtu.be/_tZeJJnpP0Q

Helpful feedback from Sarah: more pauses between the steps, too fast, add some questions (maybe even a slide with black text), add sound design, more relatable references to make it feel less textbook-like.

b.) Diagram the full elements in a chrome book. From the cooling system research, I realized it took me a long time to figure out what elements made up the cooling system. It took forever because I was reading many different sources and unsure of which source to “believe” or go with. It’s hard for a non-expert to tell what is right/wrong information on the net. So, I asked my partner Kasra, who is a material scientist, to help with diagramming and fact checking what elements go into the Chromebook. This process is definitely more accurate and well-researched then if I were to do it myself. So biggest thank you to Kasra, who is the always the best research scientist to collaborate with 🙂

c.) Fabricate the box for the component and RFID reader

I didn’t fabricate the boxes that the components are on…should’ve done it before the shop and school closed. I ended up making the boxes at home. It worked out though it is a a bit harder to fabricate in my apartment. Thank you Professor Ben Light for letting me borrow the shops’ clamps and some tools-promise to return.

d.) Integrate physical computing elements with the fabricated kiosk

In order to sync up all the physical computing elements with the kiosk, I needed to drill holes for the screen’s cables to be passed through. I also needed to drill holes in the frame for the wires of the RFID reader to be passed through. I also had to test the old touch screen and the code worked with the school’s Windows laptop to double check it worked.

d.) Design and print the vinyl

Designed a few graphics then printed it out to see what would be the best version.

Notes for self:

Steps for RFID Reader setup:

  • Run Arduino code
  • open p5 serial port. make sure correct port is selected. test console log works.
  • open website code with serial port script.


Wk 8 + 9: 3/12-3/24

The past 2 weeks were slow on account of the COVID-19 adjustments and spring break. I took a mental break and allowed myself to be a slug for a week. Eventually, I got around to being more lighthearted-it doesn’t feel good to be anxious all the time (though sometimes it can’t be helped). Some minor steps I managed to make: a.) progress on the web development for the cooling system, b.) storyboard for the copper animation, and c.) develop a new game plan for the 2nd kiosk, d.) email all the places I was planning to user test at.

a.) Progress on the web development for the cooling system

The HTML, CSS and JS for the Cooling System is almost complete. The only part missing is the click through steps for the elements.

Code is here.

b.) Storyboard the steps and animation for mining and manufacturing copper

The research and content development for this one copper animation took a long time. It took multiple references and multiple watches of the same documentary video for me to understand the gist of how copper mining and manufacturing works. Part of the reason it takes so long is because each source explains different techniques – it reminds me that there are really so many ways and steps involved with this. The steps I am describing are just a simplified depiction of what is a very complex procedure.

Anyways, I first wrote a script and was sure to write all the sources. Based on the script and diagrams from the sources I started storyboarding the animation.


After storyboarding the animation, I realized that there were too many steps and that it would be a very long animation. The easier and more sensible approach is to do a click through for each step on the website. The steps will still animate but it won’t be a full blown 5 min animation that it would’ve been if it were all combined.

c.) Develop a new game plan for the 2nd kiosk

The new game plan is to just do the 2nd kiosk in cardboard. Professor Ben was extremely helpful to talk to about how I can readjust my fabrication plan. He suggested I build it out in cardboard with all the physical computing elements in place. For the screen, I will just be using a table for it to sit on and build the cardboard structure around it.

d.) Email all the places I was planning to user test at

I’ve been still emailing with the people at Sims Center, Dibner Library and Beam Center about showing the piece at their place. They have all been so understanding. The new schedule is just to keep in touch and show it once this virus storm is gone. No one knows when that will be, but praying that situation improves for everyone soon.

Thank you!!!

Many thanks to Professor Ben Light for helping me come up with a decent game plan for the 2nd kiosk and for lending me shop tools. So helpful! I also promise to bring it all back.

Wk 7: 3/4 -3/11

Updates for this week: a.) Finish the ‘Making’ kiosk!, b.) Watch +2 thesis presentations, c.) Make midterm presentations, d.) Update rfid tag code, e.) Be upset…then recalibrate plan based on COVID-19/remote school

a.) Finish the ‘Making’ kiosk!

Fabrication-wise, this week has been about finally finishing up the first kiosk. All that was left was building the top frame to house both the scanning slot and the screen. This isn’t as easy as it sounds. Nonetheless it is done! There is some sanding and painting left but I think I should leave that for later, especially now that there’s a rush to work remote.

b.) Watch +2 thesis presentations

I chose to watch the thesis presentations of Jasmine Soltani, Aaron Parsekian, and Mathura Govindarajan mostly because their topics are similar to the work I am doing and plan to continue doing. I especially wanted to watch Jasmine’s because I have been emailing/talking with her throughout my research process and she has been incredibly helpful in providing references. Before this COVID-19, we (ITP Trash) were even trying to get her and Aaron to lead a teardown on our floor.

Jasmine Soltani

Jasmine’s thesis video


  • Embodied energy of electronics: mining of raw material, manufacturing, transportation, retails; Embodied energy refers to energy consumed at all these phases. 
  • She set out to create a tool to easily compare embodied energy of electronic components
  • Need to personally look into “Greener guide”
  • Thinking about obsolete objects

Biggest Takeaways:

  • While I knew that Jasmine’s thesis was about e-waste, this was the first time I watched her thesis talk. It proved to be extremely helpful. I enjoy the fact that are outputs are so different yet our concerns are very similar.
  • I loved that she also talked about the issue and research itself. It wasn’t just about her project but also about the research she had done. It was fabulous because it felt like a lecture on the embodied energy and life cycle in electronics. Unfortunate it was only 10 minutes because I’m sure she could’ve talked more about her research.
  • She mentions ITP Power. Note to self: mention ITP Trash team in thank you slide!

Aaron Parsekian

Aaron’s thesis video


  • Personal challenge: do something high tech using nothing but trash
  • Environmental impact of technology → cynical
  • High tech equipment is a blessing → but can we do without? 
  • Only used easily obtained recycled materials
  • Return to fundamentals of tech → focus on materials 
  • How it is eco-friendly → environmental impact

Biggest Takeaways:

  • The choice of materials and minerals is so important. This is a helpful note.
  • Being aware of how to not be wasteful is a key part of his thesis
  • It is important to mention the environmental impact that all our physical creations have

Mathura M Govindarajan

Mathura’s thesis video


  • Like that she notes how electronics engineering is extremely interesting but acknowledges that it is also unapproachable, especially for kids
  • Nice line! – “Kindle the same curiosity of electronics as opening a Christmas gift”
  • She is very clear about who it is for and her process
  • Walks through a.)metrics she had, b.)audience, c.) research/inspiration, d.) storyboard, e.) feedback 
  • 1st user testing at NY Hall of Science
    • It was very great that she included actual quotes from the kids she user tested from
  • Created a super demo video of the book and how to interact with it→ amazing! 
  • 2nd user testing
    • Good that people didn’t use it the way she expected. She framed this unpredictable behavior in a positive light
  • Mentions the 2nd version of the book she wants to make. Wonderful looking forward idea. It is specific enough of a future plan that I really think she will make it.

c.) Make Midterm Presentations

Creating a coherent midterm presentation actually took more time than expected but also proved to be very helpful. It was a good exercise in trying to synthesize all the work that has been done and to frame it in the bigger picture of my life/body of work.

Midterm presentation slides are here

d.) Update the code for the RFID Tag

It’s been a while since I touched the code for the RFID tag. I also needed to see if the RFID would still scan if there was pegboard and wood covering it. Turns out it still does read very well even with a bunch of pegboard covering it.

Updated code for that is here

e.) Be Sad + Recalibrate

Being sad is actually a super necessary step to moving forward. I’m just upset at a lot of things… I’m upset at how COVID-19 is effecting the feasibility of thesis. I’m upset that I spent a lot of tuition money and will have students loans for a program that is now online. I’m upset at how our government has been handling this pandemic. I’m upset that in a time like this our government has hesitated/doesn’t know how to provide free testing. I’m upset at how democratic primaries are going. I’m upset that the one candidate who would fight and has fought for universal healthcare is being outvoted somehow. I’m upset that people in certain professions are putting themselves in danger. I’m upset that people in certain professions will not be able to work but financially need to. I’m upset so many people have already passed because of this. I’m upset because this epidemic reminds me of a small scale version of what’ll happen when the climate crisis is so bad that there’s really no point in anything. I’m upset at the state of the world and the many stupid things we do, including myself (but not at the enormous scale that governments and corporations operate at), for the sake of convenience and greed. 

(I’ve also started reading ‘The Uninhabitable Earth’ this week so I might be spiraling.)

Despite it all, I feel grateful for my specific situation and for the fact that my family is relatively healthy.

In terms of recalibration, I’ve brought the one kiosk that is done home. Other than that, idk exactly what I’ll do about anything.

Wk 6: 2/27 – 3/3

Updates for this week: a.) Continue fabricating ‘making’ stand – finish the base, b.) finish content outline for cooling system c.) design website section for cooling system, d.) code the website, e.) create worksheet for ‘reimagining/future’ workshop + run a workshop

a.) Continue fabricating the first stand: make the bin box, cnc the top frame, cut then put on the pegboard panels, and attach the wheels

Due to the material choice of using the pegboard panels and building a frame out of reused/scrap wood, the fabrication process is taking longer than expected. It turns out that making a frame is quite complicated and requires a lot more precision than if I were to use solid panels of wood for the sides. But it’s an enjoyable process and coming along slowly but surely. By the end of the week I was finally able to make the bin box, finish cnc the top frame, cut the side pegboard panels, and attach the wheels! The base is now complete and I can now focus on the top screen panel.

b.) Finish the content outline for the cooling system

Just with one component (the cooling system: cooling fan + heat sink + heat pipe) there were many questions to answer. The research I wanted to include: What is the object, what is the component, what is made of, why is this material used, is the material toxic, and how is this material mined/processed.

The trickiest part was editing the words into short, sticky sentences.

Sheet can be seen: here.

d.) Code the website

The code for the website is coming along slowly. I’ve also been watching some udacity advanced css/animations tutorials to help create more responsive and animated websites.

Rough example of site: here
* Don’t know why some of the fonts aren’t showing up when I upload to github though, will need to figure that out.

e.) Create a worksheet and ran a workshop for the ‘reimagining/future’ section

I ran a small workshop with a group of friends. I’ve been thinking about the ‘reimagining’ section throughout the weeks as I’ve been making the first stand. Talks with people have been helpful but the best advice I got was to stop ideating and to just run a workshop to help figure out the answers.

I also realized that I wanted the final takeaway of the experience to be a receipt that summarizes the cost analysis of your choice to either recycle or throw away the electronic into the regular trash. The idea is that when the user clicks ‘Finished’ on the screen, a receipt will print out the cost of their choice.

With the workshop, I wanted to text he exact wording and reflection prompt. Through the workshop I also received extremely helpful feedback. Biggest takeaways: a.) use icons instead of words to show the impact – the text isn’t as impactful, b.) the question prompts felt like a quiz that people didn’t know the answer to, c.) the ‘you’ in the question needs to be clarified, d.) ‘cost’ in what way? what is the exact definition of ‘cost’ here?

f.) Rethink and resketch the idea of a 3rd stand

For the sake and time and practically, I decided there will be no 3rd stand. Instead, when people click the ‘Finished’ button in the 2nd kiosk, the receipt will print from there. It just makes no sense at this point to have a 3rd kiosk, especially when I am still trying to figure out what it’ll be.

Full setup with 2 kiosk and an Intro Mural

Coding/Tutorial References:

Wk 5: 2/19 – 2/26

Updates from this week: a.) continued fabricating and testing materials b.) conducted user tests, c.) reassessed the form based on the user test results, d.) created a new cardboard mockup, e.) started a new teardown with a reused chrome book, f.) office hours with Marina and Brett (my previous Playful Communications professor), g.) ongoing conversations with Dibner Library and Sims Recycling Center about showcase interactive at their space, h.) 3rd user test with new form

a.) Continued building frame and testing materials
I finished the general frame of the bottom box of the stand. It’s hard to hold something and drill at the same time, so my partner Kasra helped with assembling the frame (ty so much!). The reinforcement bars were also cut. Unfortunately, the reused Innonlux touch screen that I got from eBay was not compatible with my Mac 10.14. I had to return it and because of this delay with figuring out the screen I plan to use, I was stalled with the top portion of the kiosk. For this interactive, it’s especially important to me that I use reused electronics. Therefore, I went back to eBay and really took a careful look at the drivers that needed to be installed for these touchscreens to make sure they were compatible with Macs.

b.) Conducted user tests
I asked people on the floor if they could user test. Sid was my first user test. My second user tester was Jesse. Both had similar feedback, which really helped me realize 2 main points: (1) the content is interesting but needs to be more engaging in the way it is is displayed, (2) the layout of the electronic components on the side of the first stand (“Birth” section) is not noticeable and (3) the feedback of the choice selected or item scanned needs to be instantaneous. They each had very specific suggestions for tackling these three problem areas.

Here are more thorough notes on what they both said.

c.) reassessed the form based on the user test results
The user tests were extremely helpful for understanding the pain points of the layout, interaction, and UX of content. Back to the drawing board I went!

I realized I needed the screen to be horizontal too because of screen weight issues (touch screens are very heavy!). This changed a lot of the top section of the stand. The “Birth/Making” section also needed to be rethought. Jesse’s advice to try out a bin makes a lot of sense, so I mocked it up for a 2nd user test.

d.) created a new cardboard mockup
This new design is based on the user test and screen restrictions. I think this new form is working better than the long vertical top design. There is even a mini mockup of the form.

It was also important to mockup the bin and so that I can get started on fabricating it asap. The cardboard mockup of the bin is helpful for both exact dimensions and for doing a 2nd round of user test.

e.) started a new teardown with a reused chrome book
Due to size constraints, it became necessary to use a smaller laptop. Thankfully, I had grabbed 3 not working laptops from my parents when I visited over break. One of them was a Chromebook which is great and only 12″ wide. I did a teardown on that and found that this device had a lot in common with the Lenovo laptop.

f.) office hours with Marina and Brett

These were very helpful sessions. I have been struggling to know what to do with the Future section. Brett’s main advice was to think about the takeaway that I wanted people to have and work from there. Marina brought up many helpful references and points especially in regards to the “Future/Speculative” section: (1) talk to Ashley, Lydia and Alden about speculative futures as they all have done speculative thinking workshops, (2) don’t tell, people are able to remember something better if you ask them to do/design something, (3) the prompt is crucial and that it will be good to work through the specific scenarios that people should go through, (4) Extrapolation –> future of green, (5) What does a pawn shop of the future look like? Ashes in an urn is not tonally off as I had thought, but the tone needs to be included in the beginning (not stuck at the end). Also, anthropomorphizing the phone is a tired metaphor and emphasizes our attachments to our devices. Need a new metaphor.

g.) ongoing conversations and visits with Dibner Library and Sims Recycling Center about showcasing this interactive at their space.

Progress on this front is being made! I will be user testing the interactive at both spaces for 1-2 days in April. From these initial tests I can see what issues come up and optimize the interactive so that it can withstand living at their space for long periods of time without maintenance issues. I visited the Sims again as part of my “Garbage in Gotham” course and used this trip as an excuse to meet Kara again, check out the space that the interactive could live in, and go on another tour!

h.) User test with new prototype
On Monday, I tested the new form for the “birth/making” section with Ada. With this new form, there was so much less confusion about what to do with the electronic component and I found myself having to explain less. The bin for digging through for components seems to be working well! She provided a lot of helpful feedback about how to reset and transition to the new station. Great suggestion: add a “Finish” button to help onboard people to the next station and to reset to the original page.

More notes on her feedback: here

Waste and Waste Management: Reading Notes

“Waste and Waste Management” by Joshua Reno

More notes: here

This article is a general overview of all the practical and conceptual issues surrounding waste. It acknowledges the different types of people and forms of waste labor and waste structures. The big picture is that waste can tell us a lot. It is entangled with our lives, the lives of non human creatures, and the planet we share

Couldn’t have said it better:

“As they circulate and deform, wastes mix with people and places, with which they mutually transform or become together. As with exchange practices, acts of rejection, remaking and reuse change people and their relations with each other as much as they change the objects themselves.”

“Waste management makes things disappear by moving them elsewhere, and, like most infrastructures of liberal governance, waste management is considered most successful to the extent that its workings and flows remain invisible. Waste management infrastructure is thus bio–political…”

“For waste to end up somewhere else, regardless of what is done with it, requires labor.”

“When people and places become associated with waste, they may be seen as waste themselves, that is as disposable and abject subjects without potential”

“The most common form of re use throughout the world is the informal recycling that occurs as part of informal economies in and around urban settings and their dumps. In the privileged corners of the Global North, exotic images of poor children scavenging on dumps have become a popular object of cosmopolitan consumption and moral concern. This denies the informal recycling that occurs among economically and politically marginal figures in wealthier societies. Children picking through dumps in Kenya or Brazil are more likely to be depicted in global media than is the informal waste recycling by homeless Californian drug addicts, middle class landfill workers in Michigan or dumpster diving anarchists’ collectives in many cities throughout the world”

“Waste circulates in and bit back as a result of nonhuman flows and divides.”

“Waste, in all its variety and complexity, should serve as a reminder that we can never fully grasp the planetary processes to which we contribute, nor can we assume that they are easily managed”

“Engineering techniques of waste management are now and have always been as much moral and political as they are mechanical and mathematical”